OCA Level 3: Body of Work/Contextual Studies

Author: Michael (Page 1 of 3)

Experiment with video stills

I have a longing to make something for my BoW that is different to what could be termed ‘traditional’ photography, although I am not even sure what this means or how to articulate it. It is probably easiest to describe this as a desire to make a body of work that is not just a series of single images on a wall or in a book. I have no idea what this will look or be like, and the risks are many, however, I feel a real need to try and express myself in a way that recognises that the language of photography is in a sate of flux as we move from analogue to digital.

A phrase used by recent OCA graduate Sarah-Jane Field keeps circulating in my mind – “post Cartesian”, that is “the journey away from a Cartesian understanding of reality towards one that is networked, non-linear and lively.” (Field, 2020) Sarah-Jane’s work, particularly her L3 submission, is inspiring and original and I need to study it closer and understand better what is meant by terms such as ‘Cartesian’. This paragraph eloquently encapsulates her intentions and provides pointers on a potential way forward:

“my work eschews a monistic and linear view while embracing one that is entangled, multi-directional and polymorphic. It asks what image-making is, was, and is becoming, and although the photograph is definitely a protagonist, it must share the stage with other forms of exteriorisation. In doing so, the collection of expressions and traces on pages and screens are an investigation into the decoding and recoding of reality – and perhaps prompts us to believe we have the wherewithal to make critical and much needed revisions as we (re)discover more about our place within the universe.” (Field, 2020)

Researching CS, a section in Consumption and Everyday Life by Mark Paterson resonated with thoughts I have been having about how I can try to capture the experience of being a consumer. Paterson (2006: 226-7) references Featherstone’s (1991) notion of “the aestheticisation of everyday life” which refers to the rapid flow of signs and images which saturate the fabric of the everyday in contemporary society. In reference to consumption this is important because the selling of commodities relies on an immediate reaction to visual stimuli such as advertising and branding. Lash and Urry (1994) advance this by using the term ‘aesthetic attitude’, which is cultivated by involvement, participation and fragmented looks and characterised by immersion in dreamlike states and immediate pleasure: “Desiring, wishing, or daydreaming often characterises our drifting mode of window-shopping, of mall-going, the fantasies of ownership and of playing with our subjectivity.” (Paterson, 2006: 227)

I had been thinking about how to capture the experience of shopping and these ideas of “fragmented looks” and “dreamlike states” resonated with me and I could immediately imagine this as a coping mechanism against the flood of stimuli we are bombarded with as we shop and explanation about why marketeers need to try so hard to grab our attention. I have experimented in the past with taking images from the hip with my camera set to automatically trip the shutter at set intervals and wondered if capturing video and taking screen shots from this could be a way to advance this idea. (See here) I have also been struck by a practical problem where I was stopped from photographing using my smart phone in the Metro Centre. A letter to the centre management asking for permission to photograph for my body of work was refused with the explanation that the centre is in a period of change – the subtext for this is that there are a lot of empty units which I suspect the owners are sensitive about being portrayed negatively. Perhaps taking some video ‘undercover’ could be a way around this and could also lend an interesting visual twist.

I decided to capture a short sequence of video using my iPhone in my local Tesco to see if this was possible. I am encouraged that this is something that could have potential and is worth pursuing further. Below are a couple of quick examples of collages made, and I can envisage this working well with a large amount of images – something that will also support my exploration of visual overload. I will advance this idea walking and recording a full survey of a shop/shopping centre. This initial video was made at 30fps and I will see what difference capturing at 60fps and 4k will make, I will also make some video with my main camera see what that looks like.

The jaunty angles of the individual images contrasts with the formality of the grid structure. I also like the way the images are blurred in places.
Putting the images together as one long strip gives a feeling of progression/emphasises the experience of shopping but is by its very nature linear.
Here, I have loosely straightened the images and randomly overlayed them. This could have potential – especially if a large amount of images is used. I will explore this more and experiment with alternative/arbitrary aspect ratios/crops and look at ways to blend the images together/overlay in different ways.


Field, S-J. (2020) End of Module Reflection: CS. At: https://sjflevel3.photo.blog/2020/08/28/contextual-studies-end-of-module-reflection-part-3/ (accessed 24th November 2021)

Paterson, M. (2006) Consumption and Everyday Life. Oxon: Routledge.

CS A2: Response to Tutor Feedback

Completing and moving on from the literature review is a huge relief and weight off my mind. I feel encouraged that I am on the right track and relieved that the assignment was well received despite my misgivings. It really feels now that CS is gaining momentum and that I am starting not only to get to grip with my topic of consumerism, but also beginning to understand how the dissertation will develop.

Here are a few further thoughts:

What is the ‘big moment’ that captures consumerism now?

Andrew has pointed me towards John Darwell’s work on Meadowhall, describing it as “a big ‘moment’ in the shift from a ‘heavy’ form of capitalism to one that is ostensibly lighter and more mobile and based on ‘information’ and consumption.” Reading this I was immediately struck that it is the uncertainty of the current economic position that interests me – where is the next shift? What will it be? The heavy industry that is described is long in the past and we are now in a position where the ‘temples of consumption’ such as Meadowhall and the Metro Centre seem threatened. The changes from shopping as a physical activity to one focused on leisure and entertainment has been challenged for some time by internet commerce, and this change has been accelerated by the Covid pandemic.

Use of visual examples:

I like the advice that I should reference “how art, culture and photography have documented/critiqued/responded to what [I] am looking at” throughout the essay rather than as a separate chapter. In ‘Capitalist Realism’, Mark Fisher uses cultural references brilliantly throughout to illustrate his points. This is a book I have come back to a number of times and while it may not be something I directly reference, Fisher’s style is something that I am sure will influence me.

The semiotics of consumption is also something that could be a major theme for both my essay and BoW.

CS A2: Literature Review


I have found the producing the literature review for A2 much more difficult than I should have. Ultimately I have produced an essay that I am not happy with, however, in the final process of completion I hope to have stumbled on a strategy about the way forward for my dissertation. 

Initially I intended to write about theories of everyday life – this was a subject that resonated with me during my early reading for CS in texts I was directed to by my tutor. After struggling trying to write A2 on this subject for some time, I eventually realised that I needed to refine my focus as the subject was simply too large to tackle within the confines of the course. (My thoughts about this are here.) Adapting my subject to consumerism/consumption came about organically as this was a theme I was starting to explore in BoW – I was excited that my contextual and practical work were starting to come together. I formulated a structure and plan and decided to concentrate on some key texts so I would not become side tracked. Unfortunately, without a clear idea of what I wanted to focus on in my extended essay, I struggled to keep to my plan – almost everything I read seemed to point me to another source that could be the key text for my research. This is perhaps the most important consideration point for me as I move to A3 and the dissertation proper – how to stop becoming side tracked and remain disciplined about what is important.

Points to note moving to A3:

  • Reading
    • It feels like I have amassed a pile of material/texts so far – most of which I have not been able to include in A2. I now need to be more disciplined to decide which ones will be of value for the dissertation, revisit these and discard any that are not of use. I need to be careful about becoming side tracked into potential areas that are interesting but not necessarily relevant – rereading with focus will help with this.
  • Note taking
    • I have been inconsistent with note taking so far and need to work harder on this, using note taking as a way of interrogating ideas through the process of writing about them. Better notes will also aid with writing the essay.
  • Write, review, rework, edit
    • This was advice from the CS tutorials with Ariadne Xenou I have been attending (see notes here and here.) There is a definite benefit to doing this and I need to be more disciplined to follow this through.
  • Take a position/have a focus
    • The main reason I have struggled with A2 is that I have not had a position to work from or question to ask. This is the main area of advice I want from my A2 tutorial, I still do not have a question or title for my essay, but going back to my sources with a stronger focus (my initial idea is to look at the tension between large chain businesses and small sole traders.) Throughout working on A2 I have looked back on other students literature reviews for inspiration and worried about the clarity they displayed and the fact that I have struggled to achieve this. With hindsight I now realise that this is because they have been very clear about the terms of reference they are investigating – something I have failed to set for myself.

Tutorial discussion points:

  • What texts are missing? Are there any recommendations?
  • Discussion about taking a position and essay title – any advice?
  • Thoughts on how to structure the essay.
  • Feedback on formatting and presentation of literature review – font, size, spacing, refencing etc.
  • Any useful resources to share?
  • Any examples of strong dissertations that can be shared?

BoW A1: Response to Tutor Feedback

Really useful and inspiring tutorial session. It was good for my submission to be well received and encouraging to hear that my idea to explore themes of consumerism, consumption and retail were felt to have potential. We discussed many different approaches for this and it is important that I start experimenting with these quickly so I can begin to formulate the direction of my final BoW.

I have summarised a number of action points from the tutorial below with the aim that this helps keep me focused:

Contact with tutor:

  • Monthly progress report.
  • Email links to my blog as I post development updates.
  • Agree deadlines for assignment submissions.
    • 1/1/22 has been set for A2, in my mind this needs a quicker turnaround to build momentum – my personal deadline is 14/11/21.

Ideas for A2:

  • Approach – photograph empty/closed retail premises using Holga camera.
  • Incorporate this with time exploring the retail environment in my local area as a source of inspiration.



  • Willie Doherty
  • Ben Roberts – Amazon project
  • Led by Donkeys/Cold War Steve (particularly public display of work)
  • Memes
  • Valerie Berlin
  • Oliver Richon
  • Dawn Woolley
  • Laura Letinsky
  • Eugene Atget (promoted by Bernice Abbott and more recently Sarah Dobai)


  • Bauman: Consuming Life
  • Debord: Society of the Spectacle
  • Bourriaud: Relational Aesthetics
  • Berger: Ways of Seeing (consumer aspects/Marxist readings)

L3 Tutor Group: 27th September 2021

Notes from Contextual Studies Level 3 Tutor Group session on 27th September 2021 with Ariadne Xenou:

revision, redrafting, editing:


  • do at every stage
  • looking at things a different way
    • do you revise/pursue?
  • seeing afresh/anew
    • to drive forward
  • something new can appear which would mean need to revise what has been done
  • seeing draft through a new prism 
  • need to step outside our thoughts and see with new eyes
  • do the sentences mean what we intended?
    • introduce a new reader – imagine a new reader
    • try to see afresh
  • why do we need to revise so much?
    • might have missed the point – figure out what is missing
    • are you communicating effectively?
  • abstract ideas only take shape when we read and revise them
    • reconsider and do more
    • what works and what doesn’t – what does it need
    • more we do this more refined it is
  • dissonance 
    • conceptual dissonance
    • looking whether we might have missed the point
      • dissonance between intent and outcome
    • by finding dissonance we identify and resolve it 
    • we discover and force ourselves to think/problem solve/trouble shoot 
    • we revise in order to gain control 
  • feedback forces revision
    • and brings our own different perspective
  • think of how would approach a photo shoot/project/bow
    • not as intuitive with writing but essentially the same process


  • standing back and rewriting
  • structure
  • we cannot redraft without revision
  • redrafting is about finding resolution to dissonance
  • we cannot discover our arguments in our heads – it needs to come out – discovery
    • we write to discover 


  • comes at the end, before we submit
  • checking everything correct eg punctuation, referencing 
  • fine tuning/presentation/final touches
  • look at it for what it is not how it felt making it


taking someone’s idea and passing as your own – reference and there is no issue!

  • there is no original 
  • there can be a development that is original
  • nuance
    • can sound similar but may be fundamentally different
  • keep clear notes 
    • bibliography, paraphrase etc
      • avoids accidental plagiarism
  • ideas pivot on sources 
    • technique essential 
      • introduce – reference experiment – analysis – conclusions 
  • what is a quotation?
    • must be verbatim
    • can change grammar to flow but must show this
    • should only be used when succinct and eloquent, otherwise don’t quote
  • paraphrase
    • own words 
    • same level of detail from source 
  • summary
    • own words
    • brief description of idea where full detail not needed
  • summary/paraphrase help us understand concept better
    • writing through discovery
    • articulate in our own way
    • all need references
    • danger – merging own ideas with source – what they say with what they didn’t say
      • need control and safeguard 
  • too many references?
    • short text – how many can you have?
    • the golden balance – your argument – focus 
    • in our argument we only put what we need – nothing that is not crucial

BoW A1: Self Reflection



For A1, I have developed and advanced the methodology I used and found successful for DI&C A5 – primarily walking, investigating, thinking and then then developing an idea to a conclusion. I have used the assignment brief as inspiration to experiment with using film for the first time in many years (the images from the assignment are made using a 35mm Pentax K1000, but I also experimented using a medium format Holga.) Using these cameras forced me to limit the amount of photographs taken and I was left with a much smaller selection size than I am used to. This was an interesting exercise in itself, forcing myself to be more selective while having less choice for my final selection meant I could scrutinise the images closer.

Instead of walking and photographing without an agenda, which is my normal approach, I identified 7 sites to photograph for the project. These were based on memories of newspaper reports about incidents/notable occurrences that happened there. My inspiration was the divide between the dramatic descriptions of events compared to the banal, everyday nature of the sites most of the time. 


The images are black and white 35mm exposures. The photographs have no further adjustments or cropping made to them. This decision to do this was driven partly by the fact that there was something authentic about the aesthetic of the images that I liked and another way to limit my workflow. Of course this notion that photographs shot on film they have a stronger indexical relationship with reality is a fetishism on my part and I suspect my enjoyment of the process has clouded my critical judgement. However, I did find focusing solely on selection rather than other forms of manipulation liberating as it helped me focus clearly on the choices I was making. 

I always intended to incorporate text taken from the newspaper articles that provided inspiration for the project into the images somehow. I experimented with different ways of doing this (see here and here) before deciding on an approach that was much bolder than I had envisaged. In the final images, the text is the dominant feature with the image partially obscured behind it. This means the images need close examination to make out the scenes photographed, which, when identified are in conflict with the dramatic text. This tension was my main reason for choosing this style of presentation – it is not subtle, but that is the also the point. I would normally present work that is much more understated than this, again, making something more direct and confrontational was another way to push me out of my comfort zone. The black and white aesthetic of the photographs has connotations of the conventions of documentary realism. I chose a large, bold font for the text and coloured this red to suggest the words originate from tabloid newspapers. Selecting the multiply blend mode in Photoshop subtly blends the words with the image behind them to bring them closer together as one entity.

For the statement that accompanies the images, I have tried to be clear and concise in my explanation while alluding to semiotics and how text and image interact with each other, and can be read both separately and together to create a third meaning. I also make reference to notions of the truth value of the photographic image and the problematic nature of accepting this blindly. Despite this I am unsatisfied with the statement, I struggled to articulate clearly what I wanted to communicate. Practicing this is something I need to do more of, I did find the process of trying to describe my intentions helped with my own, personal understanding of the project. I am also unhappy with the title which is too prescriptive for my liking. After some brainstorming trying to come up with alternatives, nothing seemed to work any better which is why I decided to stick with Hidden Stanley – perhaps using this is a working title through my experiments with the project is the problem? 


As detailed here, the work of Karen KnorrTom Hunter and John Kippin were influences for this project. The style of Barbara Kruger is also something that came to mind, but this was only after I had decided on my final output. I am increasingly interested in Kippin’s practice and need to do some further research as the themes he is concerned with such as the fallacy of photographic realism and truth and power relationships in both photography and the world are ones that resonate with me. There is also a complexity that I admire about his work which is both full of meaning, some of which is difficult to read or even contradictory, but also aesthetically pleasing. Kippin’s work with text is also fascinating, and I suspect this is something that I will want to experiment with further.

Barthes’ Rhetoric of the Image and the notions of anchorage and relay were also on my mind, especially the idea of the interplay between text and image creating a third meaning. (See here) Rather than fixing meaning and leading the reader toward a preferred reading, the text adds to the ambiguity of the photographs, creating more questions than answers and suggesting another Barthesian idea – the polysemous nature of the photograph. 

Looking ahead to A2:

Firstly, I need to comment on why it has taken so long to bring this assignment to realisation. The photographs were taken some months ago and I have been clear about how I wanted to proceed with them for some time, and yet, it seemed important to establish a theme for my BoW before I submitted this. I am unsure how much this is me trying to rationalise not submitting earlier and how much is genuine, but, I do know that I have struggled to think of a theme for both BoW and CS, and without knowing the direction I am heading in I have found it difficult to bring this assignment to completion. My strategy from the beginning of level 3 has been to read, think and practice with the belief that a way forward and theme would develop. I feel this is now starting to happen (I am going to focus on the topic of consumption and consumerism) but I am surprised at how difficult it has been, and how long it has taken, to get to this point. The important conversation I want to have with this submission is not about the work itself but how to move my BoW forward. Although I now have a subject to pursue, this is still very broad and I will need to do a great deal more experimenting and thinking before I reach the final form of the project. As far as A2 goes, my plan is to develop the methodology I have used here and photograph empty retail sites using my Holga camera – I need to have a quick turn around on this project and build momentum which I can then use to help me progress with the course. 

BoW A1: Hidden Stanley

Obscured behind large blocks of text, the photographs in Hidden Stanley show banal everyday locations, seemingly removed from the lurid descriptions inscribed onto the images. The text is appropriated from newspaper headlines and describe such sensational events as a sweet shop used as a front for the distribution of drugs, a bus station that was the scene of a pitched battle between a gang of youths and the police, and a former pub that is now a swingers club with a dungeon. 

The words and pictures sit together in precarious tension, each questioning and throwing doubt on the truth of what can be seen and read. The photographs are benign, boring even; the text lack context, giving only a partial insight into what has happened. The viewer is left to fill in the blanks and complete a story that is barely suggested – and to decide whether to believe what they see and read.

BoW A1: Development and Approach


A1 developed out of an experiment developing my methodology for DI&C A5 – a project based around walking the same route each day and photographing without preconception. The images were raw material with the final shape of the project only coming through in the editing process.

The idea for Hidden Stanley came from a memory that returned to me during one of my walks – a sweet shop that had been used a front to distribute drugs. Passing the shop, now closed down and shuttered, I was struck by the banality of the building and how there was no way of knowing the illicit history without local knowledge. The sensational headlines from the time seemed far removed from the reality of the scene. From this I began to think about other stories from my local area that had featured in the news over the years but were similarly banal on the surface despite the sensational and lurid headlines of the time. I identified 7 stories which I could also back up with news articles on the web. (See here.)

Next, I walked a route that went past each of the sites and took some initial photographs. In the brief for A1 we are encouraged to limit the amount of images taken through strategies such as using an analogue camera and a single roll of film. Having recently been gifted a 35mm camera, this seemed like an opportune way to test it out. I also had a Holga camera that had not been used for a number of years, so decided to experiment with this at the same time. I completed the route twice, taking a roll of film with each camera on both occasions. The final selections were made from these – a mistake with the initial roll of 120 film in the Holga meant I did not have a set of images I wanted to use from this so the final selections were made from the 35mm photographs. It had been many years since I had shot film and the physical process of doing this along with the anticipation of waiting for the film to be processed filled me with nostalgia. Having had the photographs developed, there was something I found attractive about the aesthetic – the grain and imperfections of the black and white images fit with my ideas about exploring the everyday nature of these sites. There was also an authenticity about the look of the photographs because this was a direct result of the process of making them rather than being achieved through post processing. The imperfections present, particularly on the Holga images, also appealed and could be something to explore further.

The genesis of the idea coming from newspaper articles meant that I always intended text to play an important part in the project. I experimented with a number of ways of doing this, firstly through captions and then by overlaying text directly onto the images. (See here and here.) Making the text an integral part of the image seemed to work past and brought these two elements into direct dialogue creating a tension. Initially, I envisaged smallish text (12 pt) in the centre of the image, but this seemed lost and too subtle. Increasing the size to 120 pt and choosing a bold font (Mono 45 Headline) made the text dominant, or at least equal in importance with the image. There was something about the way this made image and text relate to each other that seemed to work – the first thing the viewer is faced with is the text which they then need to almost look behind to reveal a scene which does not seem to reflect the content of the words at all. Perhaps this could be read as a comment on the heavy handed simplicity and lack of nuance that is typical of these sort of articles?

Context and Influences:

Contextually, I had the work of Tom Hunter (see post here), John Kippin and Karen Knorr in mind. 

From Belgravia (1979-1981) ©Karen Knorr (reproduced with permission)

The meaning of much of Knorr’s work, in series’ such as Belgravia, relies on the interplay between image and text with captions both enabling the reader to understand the photographs and opening up many more themes than either would show by themselves. Knorr’s accompanying text for Belgravia describes the relationship like this:

“Historically, portraiture of the upper classes has tended to be flattering but the combination of image and text brings this work closer to satire and caricature, without losing the strong effect specific to photography. The meaning of the work can be found in the space between image and text: neither text nor image illustrate each other, but create a “third meaning” to be completed by the spectator. The text slows down the viewing process as we study the text and return to re-evaluate the image in light of what we have read.” (Knorr, s.d.)

‘Lover Set On Fire in Bed’ from Living in Hell and Other Stories ©Tom Hunter (reproduced with permission)

In Living in Hell and Other Stories, Tom Hunter, influenced by the approach of Thomas Hardy in gaining inspiration for his novels from newspapers of the time, staged scenes based on newspaper headlines. Hunter needed to imagine the each scenario based solely on the salacious headlines he came across and the images are a mixture of reality and construction. Tracy Chevalier, in an essay about the series, asserts that the project succeeds because there is an everyday recognisable, believability evident in the images which becomes memorable because of the way this is disrupted by the extraordinary events depicted, shaking the placid nature of everyday life. (Hunter, 2006: 10-12) It is this sense tension between the mundane and the sensational that I wanted to achieve in my images, the difference being that this is amplified by the banal nature of the images and the imposing overlay of text. 

Industrial ©John Kippin (reproduced with permission)

John Kippin frequently overlays his photographs with enigmatic text that both affirms and questions their content, or as Alistair Robinson puts it “what we see and what we believe.” Kippin is influenced by semiotics and the language of advertising and how this “directs our ‘internal landscape’ of mythologies and aspirations.” He uses a strategy of “manipulating signs and symbols ‘against themselves'” to emphasise the ambiguity in both words and images. This can be read as a commentary on the fact that communication is seldom straightforward and the ideological nature of interpreting signs. (Robinson, 2018: 9-10) Kippin’s use of text and image is more subtle and ambiguous than mine, however, the intent is the same – for the reader to make a ‘third meaning’ from the combination of image and text and look for the ways these inform and refute their understanding of what is being shown. 


Hunter, T. (2006) Living in Hell and Other Stories. London: National Gallery Company Limited.

Knorr, K. (s.d.) Belgravia 1979-1981. At: https://karenknorr.com/photography/belgravia/ (accessed 10th September 2021)

Robinson, A. (2018) ‘Negative Epiphanies’. In: Kippin, J. Based On A True Story. Bielefeld: Kerber Verlag. 

Hidden Stanley: Image and Text – Further Experiments

Here are some experiments overlaying text directly onto the photograph:

Red text, Helvetica font, multiply blend mode, 12pt

Red text, Helvetica font, multiply blend mode, 30pt

Red text, Mono 45 Headline font, multiply blend mode, 120pt

White text, Helvetica font, screen blend mode, 12pt

Grey text, Mono 45 Headline, difference blend mode, 120pt

Hidden Stanley: Image and Text experiments


Selecting an image for each of the 7 locations proved a simple process as I had limited myself to choosing from the set of analogue photographs. I liked the lo-fi quality of the Holga, but I did not have a useable image for ‘Sweet Shop Drug Den’ so that was ruled out, leaving me to choose from the images made from the 35mm camera.

I knew from beginning the project that text would be an integral part. I was faced with a number of presentation choices so experimented with the following:

  •  Text
    • Headlines
    • Concise captions
    • Synonyms
  • Text positioning
    • Caption below image
    • Directly onto the image
      • Size and font
      • Colour

Vigilante Paedophile hunters:

Alternative captions:

  • Moment paedophile hunters snared pervert
  • Convicted sex offender facing jail for sending explicit messages to teenage girls
  • Stanley man snared by paedophile hunter

Bus Station Fight:

Alternative captions:

  • Pepper spray used to disperse yobs who attacked police
  • Police mobbed by 100 youths throwing bricks and fireworks
  • Teenagers attack police in town centre disorder
  • 100 feral youths batter cops

Cannabis Farm:

Alternative captions:

  • Two arrested as police raid cannabis farm
  • Drugs raid in South Moor

Picnic Site Dogging:

Alternative captions:

  • Beauty spot sex site
  • Picnic site sex ‘disgusting’
  • Police warn ‘doggers’ of a clampdown

Swingers Club:

Alternative captions:

  • ‘Child’ spotted at swingers’ club turned out to be a short adult woman
  • Calls for sex club yards from school to be closed

Sweet Shop Drug Den:

Alternative captions:

  • Police raid sweet shop and seize stock over suspected drug offences
  • Drugs raid at sweet shop
  • Sweets cleared from shop after police drugs raid
  • Two released under investigation after police swoop on sweet shop in suspected drugs raid

Animal Mass Burial Site:

Alternative captions:

  • Protests gather over animal burial site
  • Limited carcasses dumping to resume

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